The paper on General Studies will include questions covering the following fields of knowledge :

  • General Science

  • Current events of national and International importance.

  • History of India and Indian National Movement

  • Indian and World Geography       

  • Indian Polity and Economy

  • General Mental Ability  

Question on General Science Will cover general appreciation and understanding of science including, matters, of everyday observation and experience, as may be expected from a well educated person who has not made a special study of any particular scientific discipline. In current events; knowledge of significant national and  international events will be tested . In History of India, emphasis will be on broad general understanding of the subject in its social economic and political aspects. Questions on the Indian National Movement will relate to the nature and character of the nineteenth century resurgence, growth of nationalism and attainment of Independence. In Geography emphasis will be on Geography of India. Questions on the Geography of India will relate to physical, social and economic Geography of the country, including the main features of Indian agricultural and natural resources. Questions on Indian Policy and Economy will test knowledge of the country’s political system and constitution of India. Panchayati Raj, Social Systems and economic developments in ,India. On general' mental ability the, candidates will be tested on reasoning and analytical abilities.




1.General- Role of Livestock in Indian Economy and human health, Mixed  farming. Agro-climatic zones and livestock distribution. Socio-economic aspects of livestock enterprise with special reference to women.  

Genetics and Breeding - Principle of genetics, chemical nature of DNA and RNA and their models and functions. Recombinant DNA technology, transgenic animals, multiple evaluation and embryo-transfer, Cytogenetics,  immunogenetics and biochemical polymorphic and their application in animal improvement. Gene actions. Systems and strategies for improvement. Gene action Systems and strategies for improvement of livestock for milk, meat, wool production and drought and poultry for eggs and meat. Breeding of animals for disease resistance. Breeds of livestock, poultry and rabbits.  

Nutrition - Role of nutrition in animal health and production. Classification of feeds. Proximate composition of feeds, feeding standards, computation of rations. Ruminant nutrition. Concept of tptal digestible nutrients and starch equivalent systems. Significance of energy determinations. Conservation of feeds and fodder and utilization of agro by-products. Feed supplements and additives. Nutrition deficiencies and their management.  

Management - System of housing and management of livestock, poultry and rabbits. Farm record. Economics of livestock, poultry and rabbit farming, Clean milk production. Veterinary hygiene with reference to water, air and habitation. Sources of water and standards of potable water. Purification of water. Air changes and thermal comfort. Drainage systems and affluent disposal. Biogas.

Animal Production –

(a) Artificial insemination, fertility and sterility, Reproductive physiology, semen characteristics' and preservation. Sterility its causes and remedies.

(b) Meat eggs and wool production. Methods of slaughter of meat animals, meat inspection, judgment, carcass characteristics, adulteration and its detection processing and preservation. Meat products, quality control and nutritive valuem By-products. Physiology of egg production, nutritive value, grading of eggs preservation and marketing. Types of wool, Grading and marketing.  

6. Veterinary Science –

(i) Major contageous diseases affecting cattle, buffaloes, horses, sheep and goats, pig, poultry, rabbits and pet animals - Etiology, symptoms, pathogenicity, diagnosis, treatment and control of major bacterial, viral, rickettisial and parasitic infections

(ii) Description, symptoms, diagnosis 'and treatment of the following:

(a) Production diseases of milch animals, pig and poultry.

(b) Deficiency diseases of domestic livestock and birds.

(c) Poisonings due to infected/contaminated foods and feeds, chemicals and drugs.

 7. Principles of immunization and vaccination - Different types of immunity antigens and antibodies. Methods of immunization. Brakedown of immunity, Vaccines and their use in animals.  

8. Zoonoses, Foodborne infections and intoxications, occupation hazards.

(a) Poisons used for killing animals euthanesia.

(b) Drugs used for increasing production/performance efficiency and their adverse effects.

(c) Drugs used to tranquilize wild animals as well as animals in captivity.

(d) Quarantine measures in India and abroad. Act, Rules and Regulations.  

9. Dairy Science - Physicochemical and nutritional properties of milk. Quality assessment of milk and milk products, Common tests and legal standards. Cleaning and sanitation of dairy equipment. Milk collections, chilling, transportation processing, packaging, storage and distribution. Manufacture of market milk, cream, butter, cheese, ice-cream, condensed and dried milk, by products and Indian Milk products. Unit operations in dairy plant.

Role of micro organism in quality of milk and products, physiology of milk secretion.


1.Cell Biology -
Structure and function of cell wall (extra cellular matrix or ECM), cell membrance and cell organelles. Nucleus, nucleolus, nuclear pore complex (NPC), chromosome and nucleosome. Mitosis, meiosis, molecular control involving check-points in cell division cycle. Differentiation, cellular senescence.  

2.Genetics, Molecular Biology and Biotechnology - Laws of inheritance. Concept of gene and allelomorph. Linkage crossing over and gene mapping. Structural and numerical changes in chromosomes and gene mutations. Sex determination and differentiation. Structure and synthesis of nucleic acids and proteins. Genetic code. Regulation of gene expression. Genetic engineering and crop improvement. Protoplast, cell, tissue and ogran cultures. Somatic hybridization, Biofertilizers and biopesticides. Biotechnology in agri-horticulture, medicine and industry.

3. Tissue Systems - Origin, development, structure and function of primary and secondary tissue.   

4. Plant Diversity and Systematics - Structure and function of plants forms from evolutionary aspects (viruses to Angiosperms including fossils). Principles of nomenclature, classification. and identification of plants. Modern approaches in plant taxonomy. Recent classification of living organism into three groups (bacteria, archaea and eukarya). 

5. Plant Physiology – Water relations, Mineral nutrition, Photosynthesis, Respiration, Nitrogen metabolism. Enzymes and coenzymes. Dynamics of ~rowth, growth movements, growth substances, photo-morphogenesIs. Secondary metabolites. Isotopes in biological studies. Physiology of flowering.  

6. Methods of Reproduction and Seed Biology - Vegetative, asexual and sexual methods of reproduction. Pollination and fertilization. Sexual incompatibility; Development, structure, dormancy and germination of seed.  

7. Plant Pathology – Diseases of rice, wheat sugarcane, potato, mustard, groundnut and cotton crops. Factors affecting infection (host factors, pathogen factors, biotic factors like rhizosphere and phyllosphere organisms). Chemical, biological and genetic methods and disease control (including transgenic of seed.  

8. Plant and Environment - Biotic and abiotic components. Ecological adaptation. Types of vegetational zones and forests of India. Deforestation, social forestry and plant introduction. Soil erosion, wasteland, reclamation. Environmental polution and its control (including phytoremediation). Bioindicators. Global warming. 

9. Biodiversity -

Plant Genetic Resourses - Methods of conservation of plant genetic resources and its importance. Convention of Biologic Diversity (CBD). Endangered, threatened and endemic taxa. Role of cellI tissue culture in propagation and enrichment of geneticdiversity. Plants as sources of food, fodder, fibres, oils, drugs, wood and timber, paper, rubber, beverages, spices, essential oils and resins, gums, dyes, insecticides, pesticides and ornamentation. Biomass as a source of energy.  

10. Origin of Life and Evolution –

Basic concept of origin of earth and origin of life. theories of organic evolution, molecular basis of evolution.



Section - A


1.1 Atomic Structure - Schrodinger wave equation, significance of abd *2 and quantum numbers and their significance, radial and angular probability, shapes of orbitals, relative energies of atomic orbitals as a function of atomic number, Electronic configurations of elements; Aufbau principle. Hun's multiplicity rule, Pauli exclusion principle. 

1.2 Chemical periodicity – Periodic classification of elements, salient characteristics of s,p, d and f block elements. Periodic trends of atomic radii, ionic radii, ionisation potential, electron affinity and electronegativity in the periodic table. 

1.3 Chemical bonding – Types of bonding, overlap of atomic orbitals, sigma and pi bonds, hydrogen and metallic bonds. Shapes of molecules, bond order,bond length, V.S.E.P.R. theory and bonds angles. The concept of hybridization and shapes of molecules and ions.  

1.4 Oxidation staes and oxidation number – Oxidation and reduction, oxidation numbers, common redox reactions, ionic equitions. Balancing of equations for oxidation and reduction reactions.  

1.5 Acids and bases – Bronsted and Lewis theories of acids and bases. Hard and soft acids and bases. HSAB principle, relative strengths of acids and bases and the effect of substituents and solvents on their strength. 

1.6 Chemistry of elements –

(i) Hydrogen - Its unique position in the peri, odic table, isotopes, ortho and para hydrogen, industrial production, heavy water.  

(ii) Chemistry of sand p block elements – Electronic configuration, general characteristics properties, inert pair effect, allotropy and catenation. Special emphasis on solution of alkali and alkaline earth metals in liquid ammonia. Preparation, properties and structures .of boric acid, borates, boron, nitrides, borohydride (diborane), carboranes; oxides and oxyacids of nitrogens, flurocarbons and basic properties of halogens. Chemical reactivity of noble gases, preparation, structure and bonding of noble gas compounds.  

(iii) Chemistry of d block elements – Transition metals including lanthanides,. general characteristic properties, oxidiation states, magnetic behavious, colour. First row transition metals and general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides and sulphides); lanthanide contraction general properties of their compounds (oxides, halides' and sulphides); lanthanide contraction.

1.7 Extraction of metals – Principles of extraction of metals as illustrated by sodium, magnesium, aluminium, iron, nickel, copper, silverand gold.

1.8 Nuclear chemistry - Nuclear reactions; mass defect and binding energy, nuclear fission and fusio. Nuclear reactors; radioisotopes and their applications.  

1.9 Coordianation compounds – Nomenclature, isomerism and theories of coordiahation compounds and their role in nature and medicine.

1.10 Pollution and its control – Air pollution, types of air pollutants; control of air and water pollution; radioactive pollution.

Section - B


2.1 Bonding and shapes of organic moleculs – Electro-negativity, electron displacements inductive, mesomeric and hyperconjugative effects; bond polarity and bond polarizability, dipole moments of organic molecules; hydrogen bond; effects of solvent and structure on dissociation constants of acids and bases; bond formation, fission of covalent bonds: homolysis and heterolysis; reaction intermediates-carbocations, free radicals and carbenes; generation, geometry and stability; nuclephiles and electrophiles .  

2.2 Chemistry of alliphatic compounds – Nomenclature alkanessynthesis, reactions free radical halogenation) reactivity and selectivity, sulphonation-detergents; cycloalkanes-Baeyer's'strain theory; alkanes and alkynes-synthesis, electrohilic addition; reactions, Markownikov's rule, peroxide effects, 1-3 dipolar additions, nucliphilic addition to elctrondeficient alkeness; polymerisation; relative acidity; synthesis and reactions of alkyl halides, alkanols, alkanals, alkanones, alkanoic acids, esters, arnides, nutriles, amines, acid anhydrides  unsaturated ketones, ethers and nitro compounds. 

2.3 Stereochemistry of carbon compounds – Elements of symmetry, chiral and achiral compounds Fischer projection formulae; optical isomerism of lactic and tartaric acids, enantiomerism and diastereo-isomerism; configuration (relative and absolue); conformations of alkanes upto four carbons, cyclohexane and dimethycyclo hexances-their potential energy. 0, Land R, S-notations of compounds containing chiral centres; projection formulae-Fischer, Newman and sawhorse-of compounds containing two adjacent chilal centres; meso and di-isomers, erythro and threo isomers; recemization and resolution; examples of homotopic, entantiotopic and diasteretopic atoms and groups in organic compounds, geometrical isomers; E and Z notations. Stereochemistry of SN1, SN2, E1 and E2 reactions.  

2.4 Organometallic compounds – Preparation and synthetic uses of Grignard reagents, alkyllithium compounds. 

2.5 Active methylene compounds – Diethyl malonate, ethyl acetoacetate, ethyl cyanoacetateapplications in organic synthesis; tautomerism (ketoenol).  

2.6 Chemistry of aromatic compounds – Aromaticity Huckel's rule electrophillic aromatic substitution-nitration, sulphonation, halogenation (nuclear and side chain), Friedel-Crafts alkylation and acylation, substituents effects; chemistry and reactivity of aromatic halides, phenols, nitro-, diazo, diazonium and sui phonic acid derivatives, benzyne reac tions. 

2.7 Chemistry of biomolecules –

(i) Carbohydrates- Classification; reactions, structure-of glucose, D, L-configuration, osazone formation; fructose and sucrose; step-up step down of aldoses and ketoses, and their interconversions.  

(ii) Amino acids - Essential amino acids; zwitteriol)s, isoelectric point, polypeptides; preoteins; methods of synthesis of ex amino acids.  

(iii) Elementary idea of oils, fats soaps and detergents.

2.8 Basic principles of applications of UV, visile, IR and NMR spectoscopy of simple organic molecules.

Section - C


3.1 Gaseous state - Deviation of real gases from the equation of state for an ideal gas, van der Waals and Viril equation of state, critical phenomena, principle of corresponding states, equation for reduced state. Liquification of gases, distribution of molecular speed, collisions between molecules in a gas; mean free path, specific heat of gases. 

3.2 Thermodynilmics –

(i) First law and its applications: Thermodynamic systems, states and processes work, heat and internal energy, zeroth law 'of thermodynamics, various types of work done on a system in reversible and irreversible processes. Calorimetry and thermo-chemistry, enthaply and enthalpy changes in various physical and chemical processes, Joule-Thomson effect, inversion temperature. Heat capacities and temperature dependence of enthalpy and energy changes.

(ii) Second law and its applications - Spontaneity of a process, entropy and entropy changes in various processes, free energy functions, criteria for equilibriuim, relation between equilibrium constant and thermodynamic quantities.

3.3 Phase rule and its applications - Equilibrium between liquid, solid and vapours of a pure sob stance, Clausius-Clapeyron equation and its appIications. Number of components, phases and degrees of freedom; phase rule and its applications; simple systems with one (water and sulphur) and two components (Iead-silver, salt hydrates). Distribution law, its modifications, limitations and applications.

3.4 Solutions –Solubility and its temperature dependence, partially miscible liquides, upper and lower critical solution temperatures, vapour pressures of liquds over their mixtures, Raoult's and Henry's Iws, fractional and steam distillations.  

3.5 Colligative Properties – Dilute solutions and colligative properties, determination of molecular weights using colligative properties. 

3.6 Electrochemistry – Ions in solutions, ionic equilibria, dissociation constants of acids and bases, hydrolysis, pH and buffers, theory of indicators and acid-base titrations. Conductivity of ionic solutions, its variation with concentration, Ostwald's diluion law, kohlraush law and its application. Transport number and its determination. Faraday's laws of electrolysis, galvanic cells and measurements of their e.m.f., cell reactions standard cell, standard reduction potential, Nernst equation, relation between thermodynamic quantities and cell e.m.i., fuel cells, potentiometric titrations.

3.7 Chemical kinetics- Rate of chemical reaction and its dependence on concentrations of thr reactants, rate constant and order of reaction and their experimental determination; differential and integral rate equations for first and second order reaction, half-life periods,temperature dependence of rate constant and Arrhenius parameters; elementary ideas regarding collision and transition state theory.  

3.8 Photochemistry – Absorption of light, laws of photochemistry, quantum yield, he excited state and its decay by radiative and chemical pathways simple photochemical reactions.

3.9 Catalysis –  Homogeneous and heterogeneous catalysis and their charachteristics, mechanism of heterogeneous catalysis; enzyme catalysed reactions (Michaelis Menten mechanism)        

3.10 The collio idal state, preparation and purification of colloids and their characteristics properties; lyophilic and lyophobic colloids and coagulation; protection of colloids; gels, emulsions, surfactants and micelles.

Civil Engineering


Part I  

1.   Engineering machanics-

2.   Units and Dimensions, Sl Units, Vectors, Concept of Force, Concept of particle and rigid body, Concurrent, non concurrent, and parallel forces in a plane, moment of force and Varignon's theorem, free body diagram, conditions of equilibrium, principle of virtual work, equivalent force system.  

First and second moments of area, mass moment of inetia. Static friction inclined plane and bearings.

Kinematics and kinetics- Kinematics in Cartesian and polar coordinates,. motion under uniform and non uniform acceleration, motion under gravity. Kinetics of particle: momentum and energyprincioles, D'Alembert's principle, collision of elastic bodies, rotation of rigid bodies, simple harmonic motion.         

2. Strength of materials - simple stress and Strain, Elastic constants, axially loaded comparision members, shearforce and bending moment, theory of simple bending, Shear Stress distribution across cross sections, Beams of uniform strength. Leafspring Strain Energy in direct stress, bending and shear.

Deflection of beams - Macaulay's method, Mohr's moment area method, conjugate beam method, unit load method. Torsion of Sharfts, transmission of power, close coiled helical springs,. elastic stability of columns Euler's rankine's and secant formulae. Principal Stresses and Strains in two dimensions, Mohr's circle. Theories of Elastic Failure, thin and thick cylinders: sStresses due to internal and external pressures -Lame's equation.  

3.   Structural analysis –

4.   Analysis of pin joined plan trusses, deflection in trusses. Free hinged and to hinged arches, rib sortening, temperature effects, influence lines in arches. Analysis of propped cantilevers, fixed beams, continuous beams and rigid frames. Slope deflection, moment distribution kani's method and matrix method; Force and Displacement methods. Rolling loads and influence lines for determinate beams and pin joined trusses.  


Geotechnical engineering - Types of soil, field identification and classification, phase relationship, cinsistency limits, particle size distribution, classification of soil, structure and clay mineralogy. Capillary water and structural water, Effective stress and pore water pressure, darcy's Law, factors affecting permeability, determination of permeability, permeability of stratified soil deposits.

Seepage pressure, quick sand condition, compressibility and consolidation, Terzaghi's theory of on dimensional consolidation, consolidation test. Comaction of soil, optimum moisture content,Procter density.sub surface ex ploration, methods of boring, sampling, types of sampler, field tests.

Shear strength of soils, Mohr -C6lumb failure theory, shear tests Earth pressure at rest, active and passive pressures, Rankin's theory, Coloumb'swedge theory, earth pressure on retaining wall.

Bearing capacity, Terzaghi and other importent theories, net and gross bearing pressure, immediate and consolidation settlement.  

Stability of slope - Conventional method of slices, stability numbers. Transportation Engineering - Highway alignment, choice of layout and capacity of highways, location survey, geometric design of highways- various elements, curves, grade separation and segregation of traffic, intersection design, highway materials and testing subgrades and pavement components, types of pavements, road drainage, elements of airport engineering.  

Railway engineering – Elements of permanent track - Rails, sleepers , ballast and rail fastenings, tractive resistance, elements of geometric design- gradients and ,grade compensation on curves, Cant transition curves and vertical curves, stresses in railway tracks, points and crossings, signalling and interlocking, maintenance of railway track.Culverts and small bridges.

Part C

Fluids mechanics - Fluid properties, fluide statics, forces on plan and curved surfaces, stabilit floating submerged bodies.

Kinematics - velocity streamlines, continuity equation, accelerations irrotational and rotational flow, velocity potential and stream functions, flownet , sepatation.

Dynamics - Euler's equation along streamline, control volume equation, continuity,momentum energy and moment of momentum equation from control volume equation, applications to pipe flow, moving vanes, moment 'of momentum, Dimensional analysis.

Boundary layer on a flat plate, drag and lift on bodies. Laminar and Turbulent Flows. Laminar and turbulent .flow through pipes, friction factor variation,pipe networks, water hammer and surge tanks.

Open Channel Flow - Energy and momentym correction factors, uniform and non uniform flows, specific energy and specific force, critical depth, Friction factors and roughness coefficients, flow in transitions, free overfall, weirs, hydraulic jump, surges, gradually varied flow equations, surface profiles, movng hydraulic jump.

Part – D  


Water Supply – Estimation of surface and sumsurface water resourfaces predicting demand for water, impurities of water and their significance, physical, cheminal and bacteriological analysis, water borne diseases, standarqs for portable water.

Intake of Water - pumping and gravity schemes, water treatment: principles of coagulation, floculation and sedimentation; slow, rapid, pressure, filters; chlorination, softening removal of taste odour and salinity.

Water storage and distribution:- storage and balancing reservoir types, location and capacity.

Distribution systems layout, hydraulics .of pipe Iines, pipe fittings, values including check and pressure reducing valves meters, analysis of distribution systems, leak detection, maintenance of distribution systems, pumping stations and their operations. Sewerage systems- Domestic and industrial wastage, storm sewage- separate and combined systems. flow through sewers , design of sewers, sewer appurtenance. manholes, inlets, junctions, siphon. Plumbing and in public buildings.  

Sewage characterisation - BOD. COD, solids. dissolved oxygen, nitrogen and TOC. Standards of disposal in normal water course and on land.

Sewage treatement - Working Principles, Units, Chambers, Sedimentation tank, Trickling filters oxidation ponds, activated sludge process. sceptic tank, disposal of sludge, recycling of waste water.  

Construction Management - Elements and principles of Activity on Arrow (AOA) networks and work breakdown structure. Interfaces. Ladder networks.

Activity time - Time computations and floats. ATC and PTC tradeoff. Work study and sampling. Scheduling principles materials schedules. ABC and EOQanalysis of inventory. Budgeting with barcharts. Working capital. PART, probability of completion.       

Elements of engineering economics, methods of appraisal, present worth, annual cost, benifit cost, incremental analysis. Economy of scale and size. between alternatives including levels of investments.Project profitibality.



Part I

ACCOUNTING AND AUDITING - Nature, Scope and objectives of accounting- accounting as an information system.

Users of Acounting Information.

Generally Cccepted Principles of Accounting-The Accounting Equation-Accrual Concept-Other concepts and conventions. Distinction between capital and revenue expenditure. Accounting Standards and treat appreation. Accounting Standards relating to fixed assests, depreciation, inventory, recognition of revenue.

Final Accounts of Sole Proprietors, Partnership Firms and Limited Companies-Statutory Provisions-Reserves, Provisions and Funds.

Final Accounts of not-for profit organisation. Accounting Treatment of.

Convertible debentures. Analysis and Interpretation of Financial Statements Ratio analysis and interpretation. Ratio relation to short term liquidity, long term solverncy and profitability-Importance of the rate of return on investment (ROI) in evaluating the overall performance of a business entity-Cash-flow statement and Statement of Source and Application of Funds.

Auditing - Nature, objectives and basic principles of auditing. Techniques of Auditing - physical 'verification, examination of documents and vouching, direct confirmation, analytical review. Planning an audit, audit programmes, working papers, audit process. Test checking and sampling.

Broad out lines of company audit.

Audit of non-corporate enterprises.

Internal and management audit.


BUSINESS ORGANIZATION - Distinctive features of different forms of business organization.

Sole Proprietor – Partnerships-characteristics, Registration, Partner-ship deed, Rights and duties, Retirement, Dissolution.

Joint Stock Company - Concept, Characteristics, types cooperative and State ownership forms of organizations.

types of securities and methods of their issue.      

Economic functions of the capital market, stock exchanges, Mutural Funds. Control and regulation of capital market.       

Business combinations; control of Monopolies. Problems of modernisation of industrial enterprises. Social Responsibility of business. 

Insurance – Principles and practice of Life, Fire, Marine and General insurance.


Management function – Planning-strategies, Organising levels of authority Staffing, Line function and staff function, Leadership. Communication, Motivation, Directing-Principles, Strategies.

Coordiantion - Concept, types, methods.  

Control – principles, performance standards, corrective action. Salaryand wage administration Job evaluation.

Organisation Structure Structure - Centralization and decentralization-Delegation of authority-span of control-Management by Objectives' and Management by Exception.

Management of change; Crisis Management.

Office Management - scope and principles; systems and routines;handling of records-modern aids to Office management; office equipment and machines; Automation and Personal computers.


Joint stock companies-incorporation; documents and formalities-Doctrine of indoor management and constructive notice. Duties and powers of the board of directoes of a company. Accounts and audit of companies

Company Secretary-role and functions-qualifications for appointment.





1.    Micro economics-

(a) Production : Agents of Production Costs and Supply; Isoquants.

(b) Consumption and Demand: Elasticity concept

(c) Market structure and concepts of equilibrium

(d) Determination of prices

(e) Components and. Theories of Distribution

(f) Elementary concepts of Welfae economics  

Pareto-optimality-Private and social products consumes surplus.

2,    Macro Economics –

(a) National Income concepts

(b) Determinants

of National Income Employment

(c) Determinants of consumption, savings and investment

(d) Rate of Interest and its determination

(e) Interest and profit.    

3.    Money, Banking and Public Finance –

(a) Concepts of Money and measures of money supply; Velocity of money

(b) Banks and credit creation; banks and portfolio management.

(c) Central Bank and control over money supply

(d) Determination of the price level

(e) Inflation, its causes and remedies

(f) Public Finance-Budget-Taxes and non tax revenues Types of Budget deficits.  

4.    International Economics –

        (a) Therories of International Trade-comparative costs-Hecksher-ohlin-Gains from Trade-Terms of Trade.

       (b)   Free Trade and Protection

       (c)   Balance of Payments accounts and Adjustment

       (d)   Exchange rate under the exchange markets.

       (e)   Evolution of the international Monetary System and World Trading order Gold Standard - the Brettonwoods system.

IMF and the World Bank and their associates.

Floating rates – GATT and WTO  

5.    Growth and Development –

(1) meaning and measurement of growth Growth, distribution and Welfare

(2) Characteristics of under-development

(3) Stages of Development

(4) Sources of growth-capital, Human capital, population, productivity, Trade and aid, non-economic factors growth Strategies

(5) Planning in a mixed economy-Indicative planning -Planning and growth.

(6)   Economic Statistics - Types of averages-measures of dispersion-correlation-Index numbers; types, uses and limitation.



1.    Main features; Geographic size - Endowment of natural resources, Population; size, composition quality and growth trend-Occupational distribution-Effects of British Rule with reference to Drain theory and Laissez Faire policy.

2.    Major problems, their dimensions, nature and broad causes; Mass poverty - Unemployment and its types-Economics effects of population pressure-Inequality and types thereof Low productivity and low per capita income, Rural-urban disparities-Foreign Trade and payments imbalances. Balance of Payments and External Debt-Inflation, and pralled economy and its effects-Fiscal deficit.

3.    Growth income and employment since independence - Rate, Pattern, Sectoral trends-Distributional Changes-Changes-Regional disparities.

4.    Economic Planning in India: Major controversies on planning in India Alternative strategies - goals and achievements, shortfalls of different plans-planning and the Market.

5.    Broad Fiscal, monetary, industrial trade and agricultural policies-objectives, rationale, constraints and effects.
Electrical Engineering


Electrical Circuits -

Theory and Applications - Circuit components, network graphs, KCL, KVL; circuit analysis: RL, RC and RLC circuits; sinusoidal steady state analysis; resonant circuits and application; coupled circuits and applications; balanced 3-phase circuits. Two port networks, driving point and transfer functions; poles and zeros of network functions .  

Signals & Systems –

Representation of continuous - time and discretetime signals & system's; LTI systems;convolution;1 impulse response response . time-domin analysis of LTI systems based on convolution and differential/difference equations. Fourier transform, Lapalce transform, Z-transform, Transfer function, Sampling and recovery of signals.  

Control Systems – Elements of control systems; block-diagram representations; open-loop & closed-loop systems; principles and applications of feed-back LTI systems: time domain and transform domian anaysis. Stability:

Routh Hurwitz criterion, root-loci, Nyquist's criterion. Bode-plots, Design of lead-lag compensators; Proportional, PI, P)D controllers.

E. M. Theory – Electro-static and magneto-static fields; Maxwell's equations; e.m. waves and wave equations; wave propagation and antennas; transmission lines; micro-wave resonators, cavities and wave guides.  

Electrical Engineering Materials – Electrical/electronic behaviour of meterials conductivity free electrons and band-theory; intrinsic semi-conductor,             p-junction solar cells, super-conductivity. Dielectric behaviour of materials: polarization phenomena; piezo-electric phenomena. Magnetic materials: behaviour and application.  

Analog Electronics – Diode circuits: rectifiers filters, clipping and clamping, zener diode and voltage regualtion, Bipolar and field effect transistors (BJT, JFET and MOSFET) : Characteristics, biasing and small signal equivalent circuits; differential amplifier circuits. Amplifiers : analysis, frequency response, Principles of feedback; OPAMP circuits; filters; oscillators.

Digital Electronic – BooIean algebra; minimiation of Boolean function; logic gates, dital llC families (DTC, TIL, ECL, MOS, CMOS). Combinational circuits: arithmetic circuits, code converters, multiplexers and docoder's Sequential circuits : latches and flip-flops, counters and shipt-registers. Comparators, timers, multivibrators. Sample and hold circuits; ADCs and DACs. Semiconductor memories.

Communication Systems – Fourier analysis of signals  amplitude, phase and power spectrum, auto-correlation and cross-correlation and their Fourier transforms. Analog modulation systems: amplitude and angle modulation and demodulation systems, spectral analysis; super heterodyne receivers. Pulse code modulation (PCM), differential PCM, delta modulation. Digital modulation schemes: amplitude, phase and frequency shift keying schemes (ASK, PSK, FSK). Multiplexing  time-division, frequency division Additive Gaussain noise characterization using correlation, probability density function, power spectral density, Signal to-noise ratio calculations for AM and FM. Elements of digital communication systems: source coding, channel coding digital modulation & demolution. Elements of information theory, channel capacity. Elements of satellite and mobile communication principles, of television engineering; radar engineering and radio aids to navigation.

Computers and Microprocessors - Computer organization number representation and arithmetic, functional organization, machine instructions, addressing modes ALU, hardwired and microprogrammed control, memory organization. Elements of microprocessors: B-bit microprocessors-architecture, instruction set, assembly level programming. memory, I/O interracing, microcontrollers and applications.  

Measurement and Instrumentation – Error analysis measurement of current voltage, power energy, power-factor, resistance, inductance, capacitance and frequency; bridge measurements. Electronic measuring instruments : multimeter, CRO, digital voltmeter, frequency counter, Q-meter spectrum analyser, distortion-meter. Transducers: thermocouple, thermistor, LVDT, strain guages, piezo-electric-crystaL use of transducers in measurement of non-electrical quantities. Data-acquision systems.  

Energy Conversion – Single-phase transformer  equivalent circuit, phasor-diagram, tests, regulation and efficiency, three-phase transformer auto transformer. Principles of energy conversion d. c. generators and motors. Performers characteristics, starting and speed control armature reaction and commutation; three-phase induction motor; performance characteristics, starting and speed control. Single-phase induction motor Synbchronous generators: performance characteristics, regualtion, para lied operation. Synchronous motors: starting characteristics, applications; synchronous condensor. FHP motors, permanent maganet and stepper motors, brush less d.c. motors, singale phase motors.

Power Systems – Electric power generation: thermal, hydro nuclear.

Transmission line parameters steady-state performance of overhead transmission lines and cables. Distribution systems ; insulators, bundle conductors corona and radio interference effects; voltage control and power factor correction, Economic operation. Principles of over-current, differential and distance protection solid state relays, circuit brakers, concept of system stability., HVDC Transmission.' . .

Power Electronics and Electric Drives – Semiconductor power devices:diode, transistor, thyristor, triac, GTO and mosft, static characteristics, principles of operation triggeringcircuits phase. controlled rectifiers bridge Converters- fully controlled and half controlled ;principles of thyristor chopper and inverter. basic concept of speed control of dc and ac motor drives:

Elements of ic fabrication technology - overview of ic technology. unit steps used in ic fabrication wafer cleaning, photo-lithography, wet and dry etching oxidation, diffusion, ion- implanatation,  cvd and lpcvd techniques for deposition of poly-silicon silicon, silicon- pnitride and Silicon dioxide metallisation and passivation.





(i) Geomorphology - Origin of the earth; Geological Time Scale Interior of the earth Types and characteristics of rocks; Folding and Faulting Volcanoes; Earth Quakes; Wealthering Landforms caused by fluvial  aeolian and glacial actions.    


(ii) Climatology - Structure arid composition of atmosphere Temperature Pressure belts and Wind systems Clouds and rainfall types Cyclones and anti-cyclones Major climatic types.        


(iii) Oceanography - Ocean relief Temperature Salinity Ocean deposits Ocean currents EI Nino and L Nino; Waves and tides.


(iv) Biogeography - Origin and types of soils Major biomes of the world Ecosystem and food chain Environmental degradation and conservation.

Section - B


(i) Man and Environment Relationship  Growth. and development of Human Geography; Concepts of Determinism and Possibilism. 

(ii) Population-Races of mankind and tribes growth and distribution of world population; migration population problems of developed and developing Countries.   

(iii) Economic Activities Food gathering and hunting-pastoral herding . and forestry Types of agriculture-shifting, subsistence, commercial and plantation Mining, Power Manufacturinglocational factors of textile, iron and steel, sugar and fertilizer industries.Tertiary activities-trade, transport, communication and services.   

(iv) Settlements Origin, types and patterns of rural settlements Processess of urbanisation morphology and functional classification of towns; million-cities, and mega-cites.         

Section -C  


(i)  Major Natural Regions Characteristics, economic base and human adaptation.    

(ii) Regional Geography of Developed Countries Canada U.S.A. Western Europe , Russia , Japan , Australia and New Zealand .   

(iii) Regional Geography of Developing Countries S .E.  Asia, S.W. Asia, China, Southern Africa and Brazil.

Section - D


(i) Physical setting - Landforms, drainage, climate, soils and natural vegetation.

(ii) Economic Base - Minerals & energy resources, aquatic resources, forest resources; irrigation, agriculture and industries; trade and commerce.

(iii) Population - Growth, distribution and density demographic characteristics.  

(iv) Environmental problems, developmental issues and regional planning.

Section - E


(i)  Ancient Period - Contributions of Indians, Greeks, Romans and Arabs.

(ii) Pre-Modern Period - Contribution of Verenius, Kant, Humboldt and Ritter.

(iii) Modern Period - Dichotomy of determinism and possibilism contributions of Ratzel, Semple, Huntington and La Blache.

(iv) Recent Period - Quantitive Revolution; Readicalism, Behavour-alism and Humanism.

Section - F


(i) Maps - Scale ,and types, uses.

(ii) Diagrams  - types and uses

(iii) Projections - Types, characteristics and uses.

(iv) Remote sensing and grographical information system (GIS)- Aerial photographs and imagery, GIS




(a) General Geology - Solar System. The Earth : its origin, age and internal constitution. Volcanoes-types, distribution geological effects and products. Earth-quakes-intensity, magnitude, distribution, causes and effects, Elementary ideas about isostasy, geosynclines, mountain building. continental drift, sea floor speading and plate tectonics.

(b) Geomorphology - Basic concepts, Extemal and internal processess. Rock weathering, Cycle of erosiop. Fluvial landforms and drainage patterns. Land-forms of aeolian, marine, glacial and 'karst' landscapes .. Elements of Remote Sensing.

(c) Structural and Field Geology - Primary and secondary structures. Dip and strike of beds. Unconformities. Study of folds, joints, faults, foliation and line actions. Overthrusts and nappe structures. Stages of rock . deformation. Construction of block diagrams. Stereographic and equalarea nets. Solutions of simple problems by stereographic net.

Topographic maps and their interpretation. Use of clinometer compass ,in the field Measurements of bed, foliation, folds joints, faults and line action in the field. Principles of geological mapping .. Effects of topography on outcrops. drawing of sections.

Part -II

(a) Crystallography - Elements of crystal. Laws of crystallography. Symmetry elements of normal classes of seven crystal systems,

Properties and interaction of light and crystalline matter Petrological microscope and accessories. Construction and use of Nicole prism, Pleochroism, double refraction, extinction angle, birefringence and twinning in crystals, Isotropic, uniaxial and biaxial minerals.

(b) Mineralogy - Physical, chemical and optical properties of the following common rock forming minerals: quartz, feldspar, mica, pyroxene, amphibole, olivine, gamet, chlorite, carbonates, aluminosilicates. Structure of silicates and crystal chemistry of minerals. Gem-stones.

(c) Economic Geology - Or, ore mineral and gangue. Classification of ore deposits. lmportant processes of their formation. Occurrence, origin and distribution in India of the ores of aluminuium, chromium, copper, gold, lead, zinc, iron, manganese and radioactive elements. Deposits of minerals use ad abrasives, refractories and in ceramics, deposits of coal and petroleum. Elements of prospecting for mineral deposits.

Part -III

(a) Igneous Petrology - Origin of magma and formation of igneous rocks. Bowen's reaction principle. Crystallisation of binary systems. Classification of igneous rocks. Textures and structures of igneous rocks. Composition, origin and mode of occurrence of granite, syenite, diorit, mafic and ultramafic groups, anorthosites and alkaline rocks.

(b) Sedimentary Petrology - Sedimentary process and products. Classification of sedimentary rocks. Sedimentary structures. Residual deposits-their mode of formation, characteristics and types, Clastic depositstheir classification, mineral composition and texture. Elementary ideas about the origin and characteristics of quartz arenites, arkoses and graywackes. Silceous and calcareous deposits of chemical and organic origin.

(c) Metamorphic Petrology - Type and factors of metamorphism. Zones, grades and facies of metamorphism. Regional and contact metamorphism. Textures and structures of metamorphic rocks. metamorphism of argillaceous, arenaceous, calcareous and basic rocks; Metasomatism.

Part -IV

(a) Paleontology - Habits and habitats of animals. Fossils and fossilization. Modes of preservation. Application of fossils, Study of morphology and geological history of Forminiferida, Brachipoda, Bivalvia, Gastropoda, Cephalopoda, Trilobita, Echinoidea and Anthozoa.

Mammals of Siwalik Group. A brief study of Gondwana flora.

(b) Stratigraphy and Geology of India - Fundamental laws of stratigraphy. Stratigraphic classification lithostratigraphic, biostratigraphic and chronostratigraphic. Geological time scale. Physiographic divisions and outline of stratigraphy of India. Brief study of Dharwar, Vindhyan and Gondwana Supergroups and Siwalik Group with reference to their major subdivisions, lithology, fossils, areal distribution and economic importance.

Indian History


Section A

1.  Prehistoric cultures in India.

2. Indus Civilization. Origins. The Mature Phase: extent, society, economy and culture. Contacts with other cultures. Problems of decline.

3. Geographical distribution and characteristics of pastoral and farming

comunities outside the Indus region from neolithic to early iron phases.     

4.    Vedic society: The vedic texts; change from Regvedic to later Vedic phases, Religion; Upanishadic thought. Political and social organisation evolutution of monarchy and varna system,

5.    State formation and urbanization, from the mahajanapadas. to the Nandas. Jainism and Buddhism. Factors for the spread of Buddhism.

6.    The Mauryan Empire. Chandragupta Megasthenes. Asoka and his inscriptions; his dhamma, administration, culture and art. The Arthasastra.

7.    Post-mauryan India; BC200-AD 300. Society: Evolution of jatis. The Sata vahanas and state formation 'in Peninsula. Sangam texts and society. Indo-Greeks, Sakas, Parthians, Kushanas Kanishka. Contacts with the outside world. Religion: Saivism, Bhagavatism, Hinayana and Mahayana Buddhism Jainism Culture and art.

8.    The Guptas and their successors (to c. 750 AD). Changes in political organisation of empire. Economy and society. Literature and Science Arts.

 Sections B

9.    Early Medieval India. Major dynasties; the Chola Empire. Agrarian and political structures. The Rajaputras. Extent of social mobility. Position of women. The Arabs in Sind and the Ghaznavides.

10.  Cultural trends, 750-1200, Religious conditions importance of temples, and monastic institutions; Sankaracharya; Isalam; Sufism, Literature and Science. Alberunis India Art and architecture.      .

11-12. Thirteenth and fourteenth Centuries: Ghorian invasions causes and consequences Delhi Sultanate under the 'Slave' Rulers. Alauddin Khalfu  Conquests; administrative, agrarian and economic measures. Muhammad Tughlaqs innovations. Firuz Tughluq and the decine of the Delhi Sultanate. Growth of commerce and urbanization. Mystic Hinduism and Islam. Literature. Architecture, Technological changes.

13.  The fifteenth and early 16th Century: major Provincial dynasties; Vijaynagara Empire. The lodis, First phase of the Mughal Empire :

Babur, Humayun. The Sur empire and administration. The Portuguese.

Montheistic movements: Kabir, Guru Nanak and Sikhism; Bhakti, Growth of regiona/literatures, Art and Culture.

14-15. The Mughal Empire, 1556-1707. Akbar: conquests, administrative rneasures, jagir and mansab systems; policy of sulh-i-kul. Jhangir, Shahjahan and Aurangzeb  expansiot'l in the Deccan; religious policies. Shivaji. Culture Persian and regional literatures. Religious thought  Abul Fazi Maharashtra dharma. Painting. Architecture.

Economy conditions of peasants and artisans, growth in trade commerce with Europe. Social stratication and status  of women.

16.  Decline of Mughal Empire, 1707-61. Causes behind decline. Maratha power under the Peshwas. Regional states. The Afghans. Major elements of composite culture. Sawai Jai Singh, astronomer. Rise of Urdu langruage.

 Section C

17.  British.expansion : The Carmatic Wars, Conquest of Bengal. Mysore and its resistance to British expansion : The three Anglo-Maratha Wars . Early structure of  British raj  Ragulating and Pitt's India Acts.

18.  Economic Impact of the British Raj  Drain of Wealth (tribute) land revenue settlements (zamindari, ryotwari, mahalwari) Deindustrialisation Railways,and commercialisation of agriculture Growth of landless labour.

Cultural encounter and social changes: Introduction of western education and modern ideas. Indian Renaissance, social and religious reforms measures before 1857 .  Resistance to British rule Early uprisings The 1857 Revolt-causes  nature. course and consequences.

Indian Freedon Struggle-he first phase Growth of national consciousness Formation of Associations Establishment of the Indian National Congress and its Moderate phase Economic Nationalism Swadeshi Movements The growth of 'Extremism' and the 1907 split in Congress The Act of 1909-the policy of Divide and Rule Congress-League Pact of1916.

Gandhi and his thought; Gandhian techniques of mas mobilisationKhilafat and Non Cooperation Movement, Civil Disobedience and Quit India Movement; Other strands in the National Movement-Revolutionaries, the Left, Subhas Chandra Bose and the Indian National Army.

Separatist Trends in Indian nationalist politics - the Muslim League and the Hindu Mahasabha the post 1945 developments Partition and In- dependence.       

India independent to 1964. A parliamentary, secular, dmocratic republic the 1950 Constitution). Jawaharlal Nehru's vision of a developed, . socialist society. Planning and state-controlled industrialization. Agrarian reforms. Foreign plicy of Non-alignment. Border conflict with China, and Chinese aggression .



1. nature and concept of law,

2, Schools of Jurisprudence : Analytical historical, philosophical, sociological and natural.

3. Administration of Justice: Theories of punishment.

4. Sources of Law: Custom, Precedent and Legislation.

5. A few basic legal concepts

(i) Rights and duties

(ii) Legal Personality

(iii) Ownership and possession      

Constitutional Law of India

1. Salient features of the Indian Constitution

2. Preamble

3. Fundamental Rights, Directive Principles and Fundamenatal Duties

4. Constitutional position and powers of President and Governors.

5. Supreme Court and High Courts Jurisdiction, powers, appointment and transfer of Judges.

6. Union Public Service Commission and State Public Service Commissions: Their Powers and functions

7. Distribution of Legislative and administrative powers between the Union and the States.

8. Emergency provisions.

9. Amendment of the Constitution.

 International Law:

1. Nature and definition of International Law.

2. Sources : Treaty, Custom, General Principles of Law recognized by civilized nations and subsidiary means of determination of law.

3. State Recognition and State Succcession.

4. The United Nations: Its objectives, purpose and Principal.Organs the constitution. role and jurisdiction of the International Court of Justice.

5. Protection of Human Rights :

(i) Provisions in the UN Charter

(ii) Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1948

(iii) International convenant of Civil and Political Rights, 1988 (iv) International Convenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. 1966.

Torts :

1. Nature and definition of tort

2. Liability based on fault and strict liability

3. Vicarious liability including State liability

4. Joint tort feasors

5. Negligence

6. Defamation

7. Conspiracy

8. Nuisance

9. Fl3lse inprisonment

10. Malicious Procesecution

(v)   Criminal Law:

1. General principles of criminal liability; Mens rea and actus reus.

2. Preparation and criminal attempts

3. General exceptions

4. Abetment;

5. Joint and constructive liability

6. Criminal conspiracy

7. Murder and culpable himicide

8. Sedition;

9. Theft extortion, robbery and dacoity;

10. Misappropriation and Criminal breach of trust

(vi) Law of Contract:

1. Definition of contract

2. Basic elements of contract; offer, acceptance, consideration, contractual capacity.

3. Factors vitiating consent

4. Void, voidable, illegal and unenforceable agreements

5. Wagering agreements

6. contingent Cintracts

7. Performance of contracts

8. Dissolution of contractual obligations, frustration of contracts.

9. Quasi-contracts

10. Remedies for breach of contract.



An optional paper in Mathematics .... 300 Marks on objective type (Multiple choice) question (Note Here UPSC Syllabus for Civil Services Exam may be adopted which is as under) One hundred objective questions will be set, each of 3 marks from the following topics.

1. Algebra - Elements of Set Theory: Algebra of Real and Complex numbers including DeMoiver's theorem, relation between coefficients and roots, Symmetric function of roots Elements of Group Theory; Subgroups, Cyclic groups, Permutation groups and their• elementary properties. Rings Integral domains and fields and their elementary properties .

2. Vector Spaces and Matrics - Space, Linear Dependence and Independence. Subspaces, Basis and Dimensions, Finite Dimensional Vector Spaces. Linear Transformation of a Finite Dimensional Space, Matrix Representation. Singular and Non-singular Transformations, Rank and Nullity.

Materices - Addition, Multiplication; Determinants of a Matrix, Properties of Determinants of order n, Inverse of a Matrix, Cramer's rule.       .

3. Geometry and Vectors - Analytic Geometry of straight lines and conics in Cartesian and Polar co-ordinates. Three Dimensional geometry for planes, straight lines, sphere, cone and cylinder. Addition, Subtractiona and Products of Vectors and Simple applications to Geometry.

4.   Calculus - Functions, Sequences, Series, Limits, Continuity, Derivatives. Application of Derivatives: Rates of change, Tangents, Normals, Maxima, Minima, Rolle's Theorem, Mean Value Theorems of Lagrange and Cauchy, Asymptotes, Curvature. Methods of finding indefinite integrals, Definite Integrals, Fundamental Theorem of integrals Calculus. Application of definite integrals to area, Length of a plane curve, Volume and Surfaces of revolution.

5. Ordinary Differential Equations - Order and degree of a differential equation, first order differential equations, singular solution, geometrical interpretation, second order equation with constant co-efficients.

6. Mechanics - Concepts of particles, lamina, rigid body, displacement, force, mass, weight, motion, velocity, speed, acceleration, parallelogram of forces, parallelogram of velocity, acceleration, Resultant and equilibrium of coplanar forces; moments, couples, friction, centre of mass, gravity, laws of motion, motion of particle in a staight line, simple harmanic motion, motion under conservative forces, motion under gravity, projectile, escape velocity, motion of artificial satellites.     .

7. Elements of Computer Programming - Binary system, octal and hexadecimal systems, Conversion to and from decimal systems, Codes, Bits, Bytes and Words. Memory of a computer, Arithmetic and Logical operations on numbers. Precision. AND, OR, XOR, NOT and Shit Rotate operators, Algorithms and Flow Charts.
Mechanical Engineering


Statics - Simple applications of equilibrium equations. 

Dynamics - Simple applications of equations of motion, work energy and power. Theory of.Machines - Simple examples of kinematics chains and  their inversions.    

Different types of gears, bearings, governors, flywheels and their functions. Static and dynamic balancing of rigid rotors. Simple vibration analysis of bars and shafts. Linear automatic control systems.

Mechanics of Solids - Stress, strain and Hooks Law, Shear and bending moments in beams. Simple bending and torsion of beams, Springs and thin walled cylinders. Elementary concepts.of elastic stability, mechanical properties and material testing. 

Manufacturing Management – Methods and time stUdy, motion economy and work space design, operation and flow process charts. Cost estimatio, brakenn analysis. Location and layout of plants, material handling. Capital budgeting, job shop and 'mass production, scheduling, dispatching, proting, inventory

Thermodynamics – Basic concepts, definitions and laws heat, work and temperature, Zeroth law, temperature scales, behaviour of pure substances. equations of state, first law and its corollaries. Analysis of air standard power cycles, cannot, otto, diesel: brayton cycles. Vapour power cycles. Ranking reheat and regenerative cycles, Refrigeration cycles-Belt Coleman, Vaour absorption and Vapour compression cycle analysis, open and closed cycle gas turbine with intercooling, reheating.

Energy Converstion - Flow of steam through nozzles, Critical pressure ration, shock formation and its effect. Steam Generators, mountings and accessories. Impulse and reaction turbines elements and layout of thermal power plants.

Hydraulic turbines and pumps, specific speed, layout of hydraulic power plants. Introduction to nuclear reaction and power plants, handling of nuclear waste. Refrigeration and Air conditioning - Refrigeration equipment and operation and maintenance, refrigerants, principles of air conditioning, psychrometric 'chart. comfort zones, humidification and dehumidification.

Fluid Mechanics - Hyudrostatics, continuity equation, Bernoulli's theorem flow through pipes, discharge measurement, laminar and turbulent flow, boundary layer concept.



Human Anatomy – General principles and basic structural concept of gross " anatomy of hip joint. heart, stomach, lungs, spleen, kidneys, uterus, ovary and . adrenal glands. Histological features of parotid gland, bronchi, testis, skin, bone . and thyroid gland. Gross anatomy of thalamus, internal capsule, cerebellum,  spinal cord, eye, ear, throat, cranial nerves. Embryology of vertebral column, respiratoy system and their congenital.       

Human Physiology and Biochemistry - Neurophysiology: Sensory receptors, eticular formation, cerebellum .and basal ganglia, Reproduction regulation of functions of male and female gonads.

Cardiovascular System -  Mechanical and electrical properties of heart in cluding .  

ECG: Regulation of cardio-vascular functions.

GI system : Bilirubin metabolism, liver function tests .  

Haematology: Haemogolobin synthesis, abnormal haemoglobins.

Respiration : Regulation of respiration, digestion and absorption of fats, metabolism of Carbohydrates

Renal Physiology: Tubular functions, regulation of PH.

Nucleic acids: RNA, DNA, genetic code and protein synthesis.

Pathology and Microbiology : Principles of inflammation Principles of careionogenesis and tumour sprad coronary heat disease, infective diseases. of liver and gall bladder pathogenesis of tubercuiosis.

Immune system, immunological and serological tests for collagen vascular disease. Histological diagnosis by- f1urosent microscopy. Etiology and laboratory diagnosis 'of diseases caused by Salmonella, Vibrio ,meningococcus and hepatitis virus.

Life cycle and laboratory diagnosis of Entamoeba histalytica, malarial parasite, ascaros.   .

MEDICINE - Protein energy malnutrition, Medicine management of : Corna, cerebrovascular accidents, including status asthamaticus,cardio pulmonary arrest, status epilepticus, acute renal failur. Clinical features, etiology and tratment of : Coronary heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, pneumonia, cirrhisis of silver, amoebic liver absess, peptic ulcer, pyelone-phritis, leprosy, rheumatiod arthritis, diabetes mellitus, poliomyelitis, schizophrenia, Meningitis  

Surgery – Principles of surgical management of severely injured and . process of fracture healing. Malignant tumours of stomach and their surgical management. Sings, symptoms. investigation and management of fractures of femur. Principles of pre operative and oost-operative care.

Clinical manifestations, investigations and management of : Hydrocephalus. Buerger's diseases, Bronchogenic carcinoma, Appendicities. Carcinoma colon,. Benign prostatic hypertrophy. Carcinoma breast, Spinabifida. Carcinoma breast, Carcinoma colon.

Clinical manifestation, investigations and surgical management of : Intestinal obstructruction, Acute urinary retention. Spinal injury, Haemorrhagic shock, Pneumothorax, Pericardial effusion/cardiac tamponade, Haemetemesis.

Preventive and Social Medicine : Principles of epidemiology, health care deliery. Concept and general principles of prevention of diseases and . promotion of health. National. health programmes. Effects environmental Polution on health. Concept of balanced diet. Family planning methods.


Section -A


1. Substance and Attributes : Aristotle, Descartes,. Lock Berkeley's criticism of abstract ideas, Nyaya Viasesika, Buddhist criticism of Pudgala.      .

2. God, Soul and the World : Thomas Acquinal,St. Augustine, Spinoza, Descartes, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Sankara. Ramanuja.  

3. Universals Realism and Nominalism (Plato, Aristotle, -Berkeley's criticism of abstract ideas, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Buddhism).

4. Bases of Knowledge : Pramanavada in Carvaka, Nyaya-Vaisesika, Buddhism, Advaita Vedanta.

5. Truth and Error - Correspondence Theory, Coherence theory, Pragmatic Theory; Khyativada (Anyathakhyati, Akhyati, Anivaeaniyakhyati.

6. Matter and Mind : Descrates, Spinoza;Leibnifz, Berkeley.

Section – B


1.    Truth and Validity

2.    Classification of sentences: Traditional and Modern.

3.    Syllogism: Figures and Moods; Rules of syllogism (General and. special) validation by Venn Diagrams; Formal Fallacies.

4.    Sentential Calculus : Symbolization; Truth-Functions and their inter definability Truth Tables; Formal Proof. 

Section -C


1.    Statement of fact and statement of value.

2,    Right and Good; Teleology and Deontology.

3.    Psychological Hedonism.

4.    Utilitarianism (Bentham J.S. Mill).

5.    Kantian Ethics.

6.    Problem of the freedom of will.

7.    Moral Judgments Descriptivism, Prescriptivism, Emotivism

8.    Niskamakarma : Sthitaprajna.

9.'   Jaina  Ethics.  

10.  Four Noble Truths and Eight fold path in Buddhism.

11.  Gandhian Ethics: Satya, Ahinsa, Ends and Means.


1.    Mechanics and Waves - Dimensional analysis. Newton's laws of motion and applications, variable mass systems, projectiles. Rotational dynamics-kinetic energy, angular momentum, theorems of moment of intertia and calculations in simple cases. Conservative forces, frictional forces: Gravitational' potential and intensityt1ue to spherical objects. Central forces, kepler's problem, escape velocity and artificial satellites (including GPS). Stemline motion, visco Sity, Poiseuille's equation. Applications of Bermoulli's equation and Stocks'law. Special relativity and Lorentz transformation-length contraction, time dilation, mass-energy relation. Simple harmonic motion, Lissajous figures. Damped oscillation,forced oscillation and resonance. Beats, Phase and group velocities. Stationary waves, vibration .of strings and air columns. longitudinal waves in solids Doppler effect. Ultrasonics and applications. .

2.    Geometrical and Physical Optics - Law of reflection and refraction from Fermat's principle. Matrix method in paraxial optics-thin lens forrtnula, nodal planes, system of two thin lenses. Chromatic and. Spherical aberrations. Simple 'optical' instuments-magnifier, eyepieces, telescopes and microscopes. Huygens principle-reflection and refraction of waves. Interference of light-Young's experiment, Newton's rings, interference by thin films, Michelson. interferometer, Fraunhofer diffraction-single:-slit, doubt, slit, diffraction gratmg, resolving power. Fresnel .diffraction-half period zones. and zone plate. Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically polarised light Double relation quarter waves plates and half-wave plates; Polarizing sheets. Optical activity and applications. Raman & Rayleigh scattering and applications. Elements of fibre optics-attenuation; pulse dispersion in step index and parabolic index fibres material dispersion, Lasers, characteristics of laser light-spatial and temoral coherence. Focussing of laser beams and applications.     

3. Heat and Thermodynamics –

Thermal equilibrium and temperature : The zeroth .law of thermodynamics. Heat and the first law of thermodynamics. Efficiency of Carnot engines. Entropy and the first law of thermodynamics. Efficiency of Carnot . engines. Entropy and the second !aw of thermodynamics. Kinetic ,theory and the equation of state of an Ideal gas Mean free path distribution of molecular speeds and energIes. Trasportphenomena .. Andrew's experiements-van de-Waals equation and applications. Joule-Kelvin effect and applications. Brownian motion. Thermodynamic potentials-Maxwell relations. Phase transitions. Kirchhoffs laws. Black-body radiation-Stefan-Boltzmann law, spectral radiancy, Wien displacement law, application to the cosmic microwave background radiation, Planck radiation law.

1.   Electricity and Magnetism –

2.   Electric charge, Coulomb's law, electric field, Gauss' law. Electric potential, van de Graff accelerator. Capacitors, dielectrics and polarization. Ohm's law, Kirchhoffs first and second rules, resistors in series and parallel, applications to two-loop circuits. Magnetic field-Gauss' law for magnetism, atomic and nuclear magnetism, mangetic susceptibility, classification of magnetic materials. Circulating charges, cyclotron, synchrotron. Hall efect. Biot-Savart law, Ampere's" law, Faraday's law of incuction., Lenz's law, inductance. Alternating current 'circuits-RC, LR, single loop LRC circuits, impedance, resonance, power in AC circuits. Displacement current, Maxwell's equations )MKS units), electromagnetic waves, energy transport and Poynting vector.    

     5.    Atomic and Nuclear Physics-

6.   Photelectric effect, Einstein's photon theory, Bohr's theory of hydrogen atom. Stem-Gerlach experiment, quantisation of angular momentum, electron spin. Pauliexclusion principle and applications. Zeeman effect. X-ray spectrum, Bragg's law,

Bohr's theory of the Mosley plot.Comtion effect, Compton wavelength.

Wave nature of matter, de Broglie wavelength, wave-particle duality.

Heisenbergs imcertaomtu relationships. Schroedinger's equation-eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of (i) particle in a box, (ii) simple harmonic oscilltor and (iii) hydrogen atom Potential. step aand barrier penetration. Natural and artificial radioactivity. Binding energy of nuclei, nuclear fission and fusion. Classification of elementary particles and their interactions.

Electronics -Diodes in half-waves and full-wave rectification, qualitative ideas of semiconductors, p type and n type semconductors, juction diode, Zener diode, transistor, binary numbers, Logic gates and truth tables, Elements of microprocessors and computers .
Political Science


Section - A

1.    Political Science : Nature & scope of the discipline, relationshop with allied disciplines like History, Economics, Philosophy, Sociology, Psychology

2.    Meaning of Politics : Approaches to the study of politics.

3.    Key Concepts : State, society, Sovereignty, Power, Citizenship Nation, Global order and Imperialism.

4.    Political ideas : Rights, Liberty, Equality, Justice, Rule of Law,  civil Society Swaraj, Revolution, Democratic Participation.

5.    Democracy : Meaning and Theories of Democracy, Electoral System, Forms of Representation-& PClrticipation, Political accountability.

6.    Political Ideologies : Liberalism, Neoliberalism, Marxism, Socialism, Fascism, Gandhism,'

7.    Party System and Political Process : Theories of Party System, National and regional parties, Political Parties in the Third World. Patterns. of coalition politics, interest and pressure groups.

8.    Forms of Government : Parliamentary and Presidential. Federal & unitary Modes of decentralisation.

9.    Bureaucracy Concept : Theories, Weber and critigues of Bureaucracy.

10. Theories of Development : Meaning and various approacl1es. Con pept and Theories of underdevelopment Debates; in the Third World.

11. Social Movements : Meaning, Theories & Forms, Role of Environmental Feminist Peasant & workers movements, Role of Non-Government organization.

12. Nationalism and Internationalism:

13. Major theories of international relations : Realist Marxist, Systems & Decision making. & Gama theory.

14. State & the Global order : Neo-Liberalism, globalization, structural adjustment, regional economic integration, Nature and Impact of Globalization.  

Section - B


1. Approaches to the study of Governments : Comparative historical, legal institutional, political economy and political sociology, approaches.

2. Classification of Political systems: Democratic and Authoritarian, characteristics of Political systems in the third world.

3. Typologies of constitutions: Basic features of these constitutions & governments: Including U.K., USA, France, Germany, China and South' Africa.

4. Constitutional development: In India during British Rule -A historical perspective.

5. Constitutional Assembly:- Philosophical and socio-economic dimensions. Salient features of the Indian Constitution.

6. Nature of Indian federatlism : Centre-state relations, legislative, administrative, financial and political; politics of regional move and National Integration.

7. Fundamental Rights: Constitutional provisions political dynamics. Judicial interpretations and socio political realities Fundamental Duties.

8. The Union Executive: President, Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers, Constitutional provisions & framework and political trends .

9. Parliament: Power and functions of the Lok Sabha & Rajya Sabha; Parliamentary Committees; Functioning of the Parliamentary system in India.       

10. The Judiciary : The Supreme Court, Judicial Review, Judicial Active ism, Public Interest Litigation; Judicial Reforms.

11. The State Executive : Evolution and Contemporary trends coalition government at the Centre and States, pressure groups in Indian politics.   .

12. Indian Party System : Evolution and Contemporary trends; coalition government at the Centre and States, pressure groups in Indian politics.

13. The Interaction of Government & Scientific & Technology Business : Previous. and now their inter relationship and changing roles in society. Elites, Role of Pressure groups class and voluntary associations in society.

14. Local Government & Politics: Panchayati Raj and Municipal Government, structure power & functions. Political realities, significance of 73rd and 74th Amendements, role of women in Panchayats.

15. Bureaucracy and Development: Post-colonial India; its changing role in the ontext of liveratis after, bureauratic Accountability.

16. Challenges to Indian Democracy :

(a) Communalism Regionalism violence, criminalisation and corruption.

(b)   Regional aisparities, envirorirpental. degradation, illiteracy, Mass-Poverty, Population, growth, caste oppressions and socio economic inequalities among backward classes.   .



1.    Introduction to Psychology : Concept and definition of psychology.

Nature and Scope. Branches of psychology. Application of psychology to society and social problems. .

2.    Methods in Psychology: Characteristics of psychological studies, Observation. Survey method, Clinical and case study method. Experimental method. Application. of the' method.

3.    Quantitive Analysis : Measures of central tendency and' dispersion. Correlation, Leveis of measurement. Reliability and validity Applicaion in test construction.

4.    Physological Psychology: Structure of neuron, nerve impulses, synapse and neurotransmitters. Central and peripheral nervous systemstructure and neural control of behaviour. Hemispheric specialisation.

I Endocrine system and hormonal control of behaviour. Application of hemispheric knowledge to diagnostic purpose. 

5. Development of human behaviour Individual Differences Heredity and environment. Life span development. Role of early experience and mastering of developmental tasks. Sensitive or critical periods of development in human life cycle and its application.

6..   Perception Preceptual progess. Preceptual organisation. Perception of form, colour, depth and time, Perceptual readiness and constancy.

Role of motivation, social and cultural factors in perception. Application of knowledge of perception to skill development (e.g. for certain jobs like that of driving, airline pilots etc.) .

7.    Learning Classical conditioning and operant conditioning. Modeling' and observational learning. Transfer of training. Learning and motivation. Application of the above to the improvement of academic performance in education.

8.    Memory Physiological basis of memory. Miemory and, forgetting. Measurement of memory (Recall, Recognition, Relearning). Short term and long term memory. Theories of forgetting (Decay and Interference theories and Repressive forgetting). Applicaton of Memonic devices etc, to improving memory.  

9.    Cognition and Language  Concept of formation. Nature and development of thinkin. Language and thought and acquisition of language. Pronlem solving. Creative thinking and its applications.

10.  Intelligence and Aptitude Definition and concept. Theories and models of intelligence. Measurement of intelligence and aptitude. Exceptional intelligence. Mental retardation. Concepts of multiple, emotional and artificial intelligence and their application. .

11.  Motivation and Emotion  Definition and concept of instinct, needs drives and motives. Theories of motivation and their application (drive reduction theory, Maslows motivational hierarcy). Social motivation

Achievement, power, affiliation motives and influence of early experiences. Physiological basis of emotion. Theories of emotion (Jameslange and Cannon-Brad theories, cognitive physiological theory).  

12 . Personality: Concepts and Difination of personality. Study of personality (Trait, type and eclectic approaches) Development of personality (Freud, Erikson, Biological and socio-cultural determinants). Measurement of Personality (Projective tests, pencil-paper tests). Applicaton of personality profiles in fitting a person to a job.  

13. Adjustment and Stess Concept and definition. Factors affecting adjustment (frustration and conflict). Sources of stess and reactions to stess. Coping with stess.Application of stess management techniques.

14. Social Behaviour Socio-cultural factors and behaviour. Development of attitudes, stereotypes and prejudice, Measurement of Attdutes. (Thurstone, Likert.aititude scale and BogaradusSocial Distance scale). Strategies for reducing prejudice and changing atitude. Person perception, implict personality theory and integrating impressions. Application of person perception to impression management.

15. Application of Psychology: Health and mental health (yoga, mediation and relaxation therapiesr Education (Programmed learning. self instructional learning and learning styles). Community (self help through group cohesiveness and leadership). Industry (Assessment centre approach in selection, recruitment and training). Environment (man-nature interaction, personal space concept, pollution reduction information technology (Application to commercial, educational and health areas).
Public Administration


1. Introduction:- Meaning scope and significance  Evolution and states of the discipline. Comparative Public Administration and Development Administration. Public and Private Administration : State verses market debate. New Public Administration. New Public Management perspective.    

2. Basic concepts and principles Organisation, hierarchy, Unity of command, Span of control, Authority and Responsibility, Co-ordination, Centralization and Decentralization, Delegation, Supervision, Line and staff.

3. Theories of Administration: Scientific Management (Taylor and the Sceintific Management Movement), CIassical Theory (Fayol, Urwick, Gullik and others) Bureaucratic Theory (Weber and his critics). Ideas of Mary Parker Follett and C1 Barnard; Human Relation Schools (Elton Mayo and others). Behavioural Approach, Systems approach.

4. Administrative Behaviour Decision making with special refrence to H. Simon, communication and, control, leadership theories, Theories of Motivation (Maslow and Herzberg).

5. Accontability and Control: The concepts of Accountability and control Legislative, executive. and judicial control. Citizen and Administration. Role of civil society, people's participation and Right to information.

6. Administrative Systems: Comparative administrative features of USA Great Britain and Japan.

7. Personnel Administration: Role of Civil Service in developing societies position classification, Recruitment, Training ,promotion, pay and Service conditions. Relation with the Political Executive Administrative Ethics.

8. Financial Administration Budget Concepts and forms. Formulation and execution of budget, deficit financing public debt, Accounts and Audit.

9. Union Government and Administration in India, British legacy Constitutional context of Indian Administration The President Prime Minister and the Council of Ministers Central Secretariate Cabinate Secretariate, Prime Minister's Office, Planning Commission Finance Commission Election Commission Comptroller and Auditor-General of India, Public Enterprises Patterns, Role, Performance and impact of liberalization.

10. Civil. Services in India: Recruitment to All India and Central Services, Union Public Service Commission; Training of Civil Servants, General ists and Specialists, Minister- Civil servant relationship.

11.  State and District Administration - Governor, Chief Minister, Secretariat, Chief Secretary; Directorates, District Collector Changing Role.

12.  Local Government  Panchayti Raj and Urban Local Government Main features, structures, Finances and problem areas; 73rd and 74th Constitutional amendments,


Unit I : Basic concepts  

Society, Community, Association, Institution, Culture- Culture change, Diffusion, Cultural tag, Cultural relativism, Ethnocentrism, Acculturation:

Social Groups-primary, secondary and refrence groups. Social structure, social system, social action.

Status and role, role conflict, role set.

Norms and values- confirmity and deviance.

Law and customs.

Socio-cultural processes:

Socialization, Assimilation, Integration, Cooperation competition, Conflict,  Accomodation, Social distance, Relative deprivation.    

Unit II: Marriage, family and kinship

Marriage Types and norms, marriage as contract, and as a sacrament. Family: Types, functions and changes.

Kinships Terms and usages, rules of residence, descent, inheritance. 

 Unit III: L Social Stratification

Forms and functions; Caste and Class. Jajmani system, putity and pollution, dominant caste sanskritasation.

Unit IV: Types of Society

Tribal, Agrarian, industrial and post industrial.  

Unit V: Economy and society

Man, nature and social production, economic systems of simple and complex' societies, non economic determinant of economic behaviour, market ( free) economy and controlled (planned) economy.

Unit VI: Industrial and Urban Society

Rural-urban continum, urban growth and urbanisation-town, city and metropolis; basic features of industrial societf, impact of automation on society; indusatrialisation and environment.

 Unit VII: Social Demography

Population size growth, composition, and distribution in India, components of population growth-births, deaths and migration; causes and consequences of population growth; population and social development; populate on policy.

Unit VIII: Political Processes

Power, authoruty and legitimacy; political socialization: political modernization, pressure groups; caste and politics.

Unit IX: Weaker section and minorities

Social justice- equal opportunity and special opportunity; protective discrimination constitutional safeguards

 Unit X: Social Change

Theories of change; factors of change; science, technology and change. Social movements, Peasant Movement, Women's Movement, backward caste Movement, Dalit movement.



Probability- Random experiment, sample space, event, algebra of events, probability. on a discrete sample-space basic theorems of probability and simple examples based theorem, conditional probability of an event, independant events, Bayer's theorem and its application, descrete and continuous random varables variables and their distribution, expectation, moments, moment generating function, joint distribution, of-two or more random vari-' abies marginal and conditional distributions, independants of random variables, covariance, coralation, coefficient, distribution of a function of random variables. Bernoulli, binomial, geometric, negative binomial, hypergeometric, poison, multinomial, uniform beta, exponential, gamma, cauchy, normal, long normal and bivariate normal distributions, real life situtions where these distributions provide appropriate models, Chebyshev's inequality, weak law or large numbers and central limit theorem for independent and identically distributed random variables with finite variance and their simple applications.

Statistical Methods –

Concept of a statistical population and sample, types of data, presentation and summarization of- data, measures of central tendency, dispersion, skewness and kurtosis, measures of association and contingency, correlation, interclass correlation, correlation ratio, simle and multiple linear regression, multiple and pertial correlations (involving three variables only), curve-fitting and principle of least squares, concepts of random sample, parameter and statistic, Z, X2 t and F statistics and their proerties and applications, distributions of sample range and median (for continuous distributions only), censored sampling (concept and illustrations).

Statistical Inference -

Unbiasedness, consistancy, efficiency, sufficiency, Completenes, minimum fariance unbIased estimatiqn, Rao-Biackwell theorem, Lelman-Sclfetfetheorem, Cramer-rao inequality and minimum varance bound estimator moments maximum likelihood and other estimators, idea of a random interval, confidence intervals for the parametes of-standard distributions, shortest confidence intervals, large-sample confidence intervals. Simple and composite hypotherses, two kinds of errors, level of significance, size and power of a testdisirable properties of II good test, most powerful test, Neyman Pearson lermma and its use in simple example, uniformly most powerful test, likelihood ration test, sign test, Wald- Wolfowitz runs test, run test for . randomness, median test, Wilcoxon test and Wilcoxon-Mann-Whitney test.

Wal's sequential probability ratio test, OC and ASN functions, application to binomial and normal distributions. Loss function, risk function, minimax and Bayes rules.

Sampling Theory and Design of Experiments-Complete -

enumenration vs. sampling, basic concepts in sampling, designing alrge-scale sample surveys, sampling and non-sampling errors, simple random-sampling, properties of a good estimator; estimation of sample size, stratified random sampling, systematic sampling cluster sampling raton and regression methods of estimation under simple and stratified random sampling, double sampling for ration and regression methods of estimation, two-stage sampling. with equal-size first-stage units.

Analysis of variance with equal. number of observations per cell in one, two and three way classifications, analysis of covariance in one and two way classifications, completely randomized design; randomized block-design. Latin square design, missing. plot technique 2nd factorial design total and partial confounding. 32 factorial experiments, split-plot design and balanced incomplete block design.


I.     Cell structure and function :

(a) Prokaryote and eukaryote.

(b) Structure of animal cell, structure and functions of cell organelles.

(c) Cell cycle-mitosis, meiosis.

(d) Structure and contents of nucleus including nuclear membrane, structure of chromosome and gene, chemistry of genetic components.

(e) Mendel's laws of inheritance, linkage and genetic recombination; cytoplasmic inheritance.         

(f) Function of gene : replication, transcription and translation mutations (spontaneous and artificial) Recominant  DNA  principle and application.         

(g) Sex determination in Drosophila and man; sex linkage in man.       

II.    Systematics-

(a) Classification of non-chordates (up to sub classes) and chordates (up to sub-classes) and chordates (up to orders) giving general features and . evolutionary relationship of the following phyla: Protozoa, Porifera, Coelenterate, Platyhelminthes, Nematheliminthes, Anneljda, Arthropoda, Moullusca, Echinodermata, Minor Phyla (Bryozoa, Phoroida and Chaetognatha) and Hemichordata) .

(b) Structure reproduction and life history of the following types  Amoeba, Monocystis, Plasmodium, Paramecium, Sycon, Hydra, Obelia, Fasciola, Taenia, Ascaris, Neanthes Pheietima, Hirudinia, Palaemon, Buthus, Periplaneta Lamellidens, Pila, Asterias and Balanoglossus  

(c) Classification of chordates (up to orders), giving general features and evolutionary relationship of the following  Protochordata Agnatha Gnathostomata - Pisces, Amphibia, Reptilia, Aves and Mammalia.

(d) Comparative functional anatomy of the following based on type animals (Scoliodon, Rana, Calotes, Columba and Oryctolagus) integrument and its derivatives, endoskeleton, digestive system, respiratory system, circulatory system including heart and aortic arches. urinogenital system brain and sense organs (eye and ear) endocrine glands and. other hormone producing structures, (Pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pancreas gonads) their function.

III.  Vertebrate Physiology and Biochemistry

(a) Chemical composition of protoplasm nature and function of enzymes vitamins, their sources and role; colloids and hydrogen ion concentration biological oxidation, electron transport and role of ATP, enegetics, glycoloysis, citric acid cycle vertebrate hormones their type, sourees and functions pheromones and their role.     

(b) Neuron and nerve imulse-conduction and transmission. across synapses nenurotrasmitters and their role, including acetyl cholinesterase activity       

(c) Homeostasis; osmoregulation active transport and ion pump. .

(d) Composition of carbohydrates, fats, lipids and proteins; steroids.        

IV.   Embryology

(a) Gametogmesis, fertilization, cleavage gastrulation in frog and chick.

(b) Metamorphosis in frog and retrogressive metamorphosis in ascidian extra-embryonic membrances in chick and mammal  placentation in mammals Bio-genetic law.     .

V.     Evolution

(a) Origin of life principles; theories and evidences of evolution; species concept.  

(b) Zoogeographical realms, insular fauna geological eras

(c) Evolution of man evolutionary status of man.

VI. Ecology. Wildlife and Ethology:

(a) A biotic and biotic factors; concept of ecosystem, food chain and energy flow adaptation of aquatic, terrestrial and aerial fauna; intra-and interspecific animal relationships environmental pollution Types sources, causes, control and prevention.

(b) Wildlife of India endangered species of India sancturies and national parks of India.

(c) Biological rhythms.  

VII. Economic Zoology

(a) Beneficial and harmful kinsects including inect vectors of human diseases.

(b) industrial fish, prawan and molluscs of India.

(c) Non-poisonous and poisonous snakes of India.

(d) Venomous animals-centipede, easp. honey bee.     

(e) Diseases caused by aberrant chromosomes/genes in man genetic counselling DNA as a tool for forensic investigation.